29 April 2010



A diagram of the main parts of a neuron

Overview of your SPINAL and CRANIAL nerves. Note the eight CERVICAL nerves, the 12 THORACIC nerves, the 5 LUMBAR nerves, and the 5 SACRAL nerves.
Which nerves innervate your arms?
Which nerves innervate your legs?
Detailed view of the MAJOR NERVES in your body.

The DERMATOMES of your body. If you have a spinal cord injury, for example, by slipping on ice, the corresponding dermatome will become numb or will hurt greatly. For example, if the front of your leg including your knee becomes numb, which vertebrae in your spinal cord has become injured ?

A SAGITTAL view (cut in half) of the brain to show the internal structures. Note in particular the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY gland. Among other things, these parts of your brain are critical in changing boys and girls into men and women.

The FOUR LOBES of the Brain: FRONTAL lobe, PARIETAL lobe, OCCIPITAL lobe and TEMPORAL lobe. COMPARE to the bones of the skull. WHAT do each of these lobes do?

REFLEXES are hard wired into your spinal cord, and react even before your brain is notified. Some examples of reflexes are to...
  • Help pick up an unexpectedly heavy load
  • Drop a disastrously heavy load before your muscles and/or tendons are torn
  • Help to balance your body
  • Take away your arm or leg from a pan that is too hot or a sharp object on the ground

27 April 2010


Are we addicted to oil?

The United States uses almost 20 million barrels of oil EVERY DAY, 365 days a year, more than twice as much as the next largest consumer, China, and more than four times as much as the third largest consumer, Japan.

Here's a list of the other top 9 countries in terms of their oil usage.

In this chapter of our Chemistry book, learn how to make GASOLINE, DIESEL fuel, JET fuel, NATURAL gas, HEATING oil, TAR and ASPHALT, and how to use FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION and CATALYTIC CRACKING to separate petroleum into all of these important chemicals:

READ this chapter from our Chemistry book: http://docs.google.com/Doc?docid=0ARNbGsVH1evCZGQ5MjluM2dfMTg1NmdzejRmZzk&hl=en

25 April 2010

Synthesis, Decomposition, Single & Double Displacement and Combustion reactions

These are the five main types of chemical reactions :

Note, in combustion reactions, if not enough Oxygen is present, deadly Carbon monoxide will be produced instead of Carbon dioxide.

READ these sections to learn more about these reaction types in the Chemistry text: http://docs.google.com/Doc?docid=0ARNbGsVH1evCZGQ5MjluM2dfOTNjOWQ3YjJmNw&hl=en

SEE the following power point demonstration for more information on these types of reactions.
It is **not** necessary for you to read the sections on Ionic compounds in the ppt presentation.

24 April 2010

Chemical Kinetics and Chemical Equilibrium

We've learned about balancing Chemical reactions, but we haven't talked about HOW FAST they are, or, when all is said and done, HOW MUCH of the reactants are left, and HOW MUCH product is produced.
(click on picture to go to the Wikipedia article)
  • HOW FAST they run is part of the study of Reaction rate, or CHEMICAL KINETICS.
  • HOW MUCH product is produced, and how much of the reactants is left, is part of the study of
  • Chemical EQUILIBRIUM.
Start by considering the difference in reaction rates between Iron rusting and Wood burning...

READ the following section of our CHEMISTRY textbook to learn more about
(1) Chemical equilibrium and
(2) Chemical Kinetics
DEFINE each of these phrases in your own words.
GIVE an EXAMPLE of why each of these phrases is important if you are a chemist.

23 April 2010


Major muscles of the body, with their
COMMON names and SCIENTIFIC (Latin) names

YOUR JOB is to DIAGRAM and LABEL the major muscle groups, for both the Anterior (frontal) view and the Posterior (Rear) view



22 April 2010

More MUSCLES of the body, including male and female differences

Here are views of the muscles in the front and back of the LEG, for MALES and FEMALES, the FOREARM, and the HEAD and NECK.

Muscles in the BACK of the FEMALE LEG

Muscles in the BACK of the MALE LEG

Muscles in the FRONT of the FEMALE LEG

Muscles in the FRONT and SIDE of the MALE LEG

Muscles in the FOREARM

Muscles in the HEAD and NECK


The bones of the foot and ankle:

The bones of the HAND, posterior view, left hand

The bones of the SKULL, lateral view:

The bones of the SKULL, frontal view

The bones of the SKELETON, anterior and posterior view

16 April 2010

Hypovolemic shock? Vasodilatory shock? TIA's? Information that could save your life.

Ever wondered what causes heart disease, heart attacks, shock or stroke?
Do you know the difference between hypovolemic shock and vasodilatory shock?
If not, read on...

See this link for all the details: http://docs.google.com/Doc?docid=0ARNbGsVH1evCZGQ5MjluM2dfMTY2YzQzYmJoZDk&hl=en

12 April 2010

Major Arteries and Veins from the American Medical Association (AMA)

This is an overview of the major blood vessels in the circulatory system...

These are the major arteries in the body

and these are the major veins...

10 April 2010

Systemic blood circulation, Arteries and Veins

This is a simplified diagram of how blood flows through your body.
From your heart, blood goes to the lungs (to get oxygenated, and to eliminate the CO2), then goes to the
(Of course, it goes to all parts of your body, but this is a simplification).


Note the names of the major veins and arteries involved.(e.g., Carotid arteries and Jugular veins for the head).

Here is a comparison of the differences between ARTERIES and VEINS.
Note that Arteries ALWAYS carry blood away from the heart. They usually carry oxygenated blood, except in the case of the pulmonary artery.
Veins ALWAYS carry blood towards the heart. They usually have deoxygenated blood, except in the case of the pulmonary vein.

Detailed diagram of the cross-section of an artery and a vein.

Human Heart Anatomy

Here is the basic internal anatomy of the human heart.

It consists of 2 sides (Right and Left)...
4 chambers (Right atrium, Right ventricle, Left atrium, Left ventricle)
4 valves (Tricuspid valve, Mitral valve, Pulmonary valve, Aortic Valve)
4 major blood vessels (Superior/inferior vena cavae, Pulmonary Vein, Pulmonary Artery, Aorta)

The following applet, on the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.gov website, has several movies showing the circulation of the blood, and various problems that can occur with it. YOUR JOB is to watch the following movie, WRITE DOWN the major parts of the heart, and DEFINE them. You do NOT have to diagram the heart (for this homework).

Balancing chemical equations

Here are the steps to balancing a chemical equation.
Here's a brief summary:
(1) Law of Conservation of MassFor each element, the number of atoms on the left and the right of the equation are the same (e.g., 3H2 on the left and 2H on the right is NOT Ok).
(2) To balance the equation, you can ONLY change the coefficients, NOT the subscripts (e.g., changing CO2 to 3CO2 is OK. Changing CO2 to CO4 is not.)
(3) To calculate the number of atoms for each atom, you MULTIPLY the coefficient times the subscripts (e.g., 3 CO2 = 3 Carbons and 6 Oxygens)
(4) You MUST have only integer coefficients when you are finished (e.g., 6.5 O2 is not ok, 13 O2 is ok)
(5) You MUST have the lowest possible integer coefficients when you are finished 

For the textbook description, READ our textbook:

For a movie showing each of these steps, see the following website:



STEP 3: Balance the Hydrogens

STEP 4: Balance the Oxygens

FINAL STEP: Make sure all coefficients are integers!
For those of you who want to CHECK your answers, please see the following web site: www.webqc.org/balance.php
NOTE: There are many example equations that you can PASTE into this website and test how to balance them. For example:

  • Fe + Cl2 = FeCl3
  • KMnO4 + HCl = KCl + MnCl2 + H2O + Cl2
  • K4Fe(CN)6 + H2SO4 + H2O = K2SO4 + FeSO4 + (NH4)2SO4 + CO
  • C6H5COOH + O2 = CO2 + H2O
  • K4Fe(CN)6 + KMnO4 + H2SO4 = KHSO4 + Fe2(SO4)3 + MnSO4 + HNO3 + CO2 + H2O